Employee backups are the people who fill in when the regular operator is absent.
Having backups implies something. It means that the team has regularly assigned positions and does little or no job rotation.
In great Lean companies, standard work is in full force and people rotate in and out of positions regularly. This reduces the need for backups because there are already many people cross-trained for each work area.
Customer behavior is the way the average customer, in a specific target group, will act in a given situation.
Customer behavior depends on a host of factors—economic class, psychology, region, culture. Like-minded customers tend to behave in similar ways. That is why ads are targeted to specific groups.
The fishbone diagram (a.k.a. cause and effect diagram, a.k.a. Ishikawa Diagram) is a way of linking the causes of a problem to the observed effect.
The diagram groups the causes in categories along the spine. The distinctive shape of the tool gives the fishbone diagram its name.
A line shift is a synchronized movement of all the production work on an assembly line. It can be done in several ways.
The Office Process Recording Sheet is a tool used to document the steps in an administrative process.
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