SWOT analysis stands for strengths, weaknesses, opportunities, and threats. It is a structured approach for assessing at a project, new business venture, ongoing concern, or similar situation.
By itself, SWOT analysis has limited utility. It has much more value when used with a purpose, such as a product launch, an annual strategy session, of when deciding whether to venture into a new industry
Tribal knowledge is the unwritten collective wisdom of an organization. It refers to the tradition of tribes handing information down from generation to generation in the time before the written word was developed.
In the same fashion, when information is not document properly, it must be passed from employee to employee.
Capability simply means that a person or machine has the ability to perform a required task. It is a binary measure. That simply means that it is physically possible in the current state to do something.
Capability should not be confused with yield or effectiveness (how good the resources is at doing the process), or with capacity (how often the resource can complete the task.)
5W1H is shorthand for “Who, What, When, Where, Why, and How.” It is used both in problem solving and in project planning.
This set of questions is sometimes referred to as the Kipling Method, due to a poem that appeared in Rudyard Kipling’s 1902 “Just So Stories.”
I keep six honest serving-men
(They taught me all I knew);
Their names are What and Why and When
And How and Where and Who.
The 7 Basic Tools of Quality (or 7 QC Tools) is a set of relatively simple data analysis tools used to support quality improvement efforts.
These tools are fairly simple in that they don’t require sophisticated statistics to use (though control charts border on being too complex for the typical user to develop.)
The 7 Basic Tools of Quality are:
Note that there is a split between flow charts and stratification for the last tool. We have included flow charts for two reasons. (1) It is more commonly used and understood that stratification. (2) Stratification is frequently used in conjunction with other tools.
The 6 P’s are a mnemonic tool similar to the 6M’s. Both are used to categorize causes on an Ishikawa (cause & effect) diagram. The 6 M’s were traditionally used for fishbone diagrams on the shop floor or other production environments.
The 6 P’s originated when more and more companies began migrating Lean to the office. The 6 P’s are:
The 6 M’s are a mnemonic tool used primarily during the creation of a cause & effect diagram.
The 6 M’s are:
The Delphi method of predicting outcomes has been around for a long while, but is not widely used in continuous improvement. It is the process of anonymously posing similar questions to many experts and using their results to further a discussion to predict a future outcome.
One such panel was formed by a television network to estimate how fast HDTV would be adopted. The panel accurately predicted delays, helping the network to postpone significant capital expense and avoid early adopter headaches.
Of note, the name “Delphi” originates from the Oracle at Delphi. In Greek mythology, this is the location in which prophecies from Apollo were handed down.
A production buffer is a type of inventory allocated specifically as a hedge against variation. The root cause of the unpredictability may be due to the normal variation of a process, or any of a variety of types of special cause variation. The latter causes include things like supplier unreliability, machine breakdowns, and high defect rates.
The size of the buffer is related to the frequency and duration of the problems, and to the ease of replenishment.
Automated guided vehicles (sometimes called Automatic Guided Vehicles) are driverless vehicles that primarily perform transportation functions. In most cases, they support materials groups in distribution of raw materials and in movement of finished goods. These vehicles may either operate similar to a pallet jack, and carry the load, or as a tow-truck, and pull the load. They are guided by a variety of means, including a buried wire with RF transmissions, magnetic tape, reflectors mounted throughout the facility, or even more sophisticated technologies that sense the environment or track motion. Increasingly advanced technologies are regularly added to AGVs, increasing their usefulness.
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