Specifications are the stated design parameters of a product or service. Specifications can cover any of a variety of features, from physical dimensions, to operating range, to battery life.
Some specifications are given with a margin of error, such as ‘12.00 +/- 0.10 inches’. Other specs are given with a maximum or minimum, such as <250 ppm of a contaminant.
Some specifications are dictated by government regulation, while others are driven by market requirements or opportunities.
Specifications act as an agreement between supplier and customer, defining what to expect. When a product doesn’t meet the specification, it is often referred to as being ‘out of spec’ and should be treated as a defect.