An anomaly is a condition outside of the expected range. Generally, an anomaly has an unusual or unexplained circumstance around it. An explainable spike in a pressure gauge is not an anomaly. An inexplicable, temporary increase would be.
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Anomalies tend to be fleeting, and hard to identify. In some cases, they may be a momentary glitch or bug that doesn’t recur. In other cases, they are predictors of serious problems. Make sure you record the data behind an anomaly immediately so you can take appropriate countermeasures if it recurs. Understanding the reason behind an anomaly is especially important when there is a quality or safety risk associated with it.
Lean, through standardization, helps reduce the number of anomalies you will face.